<sup id="6igwk"><center id="6igwk"></center></sup>
<acronym id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></acronym>
<acronym id="6igwk"></acronym>
<acronym id="6igwk"><div id="6igwk"></div></acronym>
<rt id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></rt>
<rt id="6igwk"><optgroup id="6igwk"></optgroup></rt>
<acronym id="6igwk"><center id="6igwk"></center></acronym>
<rt id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></rt>

What is Acetone used for?

Oct 13,2021

The appearance of acetone in scientific thinking may be traced back to 1798, when John Rollo, an English physician, described a material in human breath of an odor of decaying apples. Later this material was identified as acetone, and it was regarded as a characteristic feature of diabetic coma. By the turn of nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it became widely held that acetone was poorly, if at all, metabolized. 

This picture started to change from the end of 1940s since experimental data became available showing the incorporation of 14C-carbons of labeled acetone into cholesterol, fatty acids, urea, and glycogen. And the oxidation of acetone to carbon dioxide exhaled in respiratory air was also recognized. The possibility of in vivo formation of glucose from acetone in experimental animals was also reported. In 1980, the participation of cytochrome P450 type enzymes in acetone breakdown was discovered. In 1984, the pathways of acetone metabolism in rats were described.

1.jpg

Occurance

Acetone occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires, and it is found in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites also. In the metabolic machinery of bacteria and animals, acetone is also present. Industrial processes contribute tonnages of acetone to the environment more than natural processes.
As seen, a long-lasting standard dogma was that acetone was an end product of metabolism in animals and humans. Nonetheless, the pathways described in this article demonstrate the potential for animals and humans to metabolize acetone.

Uses 

Acetone has a characteristic odor of decaying apple and a sweetish taste. It is obtained by fermentation (retains a lesser proportion of the acetone market) or chemical synthesis (either as a main product or as a by-product) mainly via the cumene process to produce phenol. The uses of acetone in industry are many and based on its miscibility with water, alcohol, chloroform, ether, and most of the oils. Hence, its largest use is as a solvent in paint, varnishes, lacquers, plastics, and fibers, and a great variety of miscellaneous solvent uses (fats, oils). It is also used to make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals. In the laboratory, it is used to extract various substances from animal and plant tissues, and as a dehydrating agent. In housekeeping, it is found as a component of detergents and cosmetic products.

Mechanism of Toxicity  

Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil. Once entered the atmosphere, it is degraded by photolysis, a reaction in which free radicals are involved or removed by wet deposits. It is a significant groundwater contaminant because of its miscibility in water.

Environmental Fate

In primates (including humans), isotretinoin (Accutane) is metabolized to a more active form, 13-cis-4-oxo-retinoic acid, which is able to move through the placental membrane. On its own, however, Accutane (isotretinoin) is not particularly motile across the placental barrier, and perhaps most interestingly tends not to bind to cellular retinoid-binding proteins or nuclear receptors. The rapid isomerization to the all-trans isomer, the oxidation of Accutane (isotretinoin) to 13-cis-4- oxo-retinoic acid, and the relatively high circulation times of these compounds may be important in explaining the teratogenic toxicity of Accutane (isotretinoin).

Some studies have more fully explored the metabolic products of isotretinoin. For example, isotretinoin can be metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 microsomal enzyme system – more specifically the CYP2C8, CYP2C, CYP3A4, and CYP2B6 isoenzymes. The metabolites produced are numerous, including retinoic acid (tretinoin), 4-oxo-isotretinoin, and 4-oxo-retinoic acid (4-oxo-tretinoin). This relatively large array of retinoid metabolites may produce a variety of effects, most notably due to their higher potency as retinoids compared to the parent compound (isotretinoin).

It is possible that these additional metabolites are capable of binding to a variety of retinoid receptors in order to alter gene expression and further transcription or transrepression in protein synthesis, which may be responsible for the toxic effects of isotretinoin.

  • Related articles
  • Related Qustion
  • Synthesis and Application of Acetone May 17, 2022

    Acetone (ACE one) is an important organic raw material, which is mainly used to produce cellulose acetate film, plastic and coating solvent.

See also
4

Acetic acid is present throughout nature as a normal metabolite of both plants and animals. Acetic acid may also be released to the environment in a variety of waste effuents, in emissions from combustion processes, and in exhaust from gaso....

Oct 13,2021API

Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine that works at the H-1 receptors. It was first synthesized in 1943 by Dr George Rieveschl of the University of Cincinnati.....

Oct 14,2021API

<sup id="6igwk"><center id="6igwk"></center></sup>
<acronym id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></acronym>
<acronym id="6igwk"></acronym>
<acronym id="6igwk"><div id="6igwk"></div></acronym>
<rt id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></rt>
<rt id="6igwk"><optgroup id="6igwk"></optgroup></rt>
<acronym id="6igwk"><center id="6igwk"></center></acronym>
<rt id="6igwk"><small id="6igwk"></small></rt>
国产青青操,国产特黄A片免费播放,蜜芽MIYA737.MON牢记跳转接口免费,国产精品久久久久妇女网站
国产精品成人a区在线观看| 三个人一上一下的运动| 亚洲加勒比久久88色综合| 国产精品久久久一本精品| 永久免费无码A片在线观| 最近中文字幕mv免费高清在线| 日韩人妻无码一区二区三区久久99| 亚洲一级aⅴ无码毛片大| 97色老99久久九九爱精品| 免费三级网址| 人人干人人澡| 亚洲青色欧美激情在线观看| 日日夜夜电影| 久久香蕉国产线看观看精品蕉| 亚洲免费网址| 欧洲多毛裸XXXXX| 日本黄色99| 免费看视频电影的西瓜视频| 亚洲综合久久成人A片| 日日噜噜夜夜狠狠久久2021| 日本人体视频| 久久久久免费精品人妻一区二区| 99久久一区二区精品| 欧美精品成V高清视频| 惩罚女翘臀跪趴求打屁股视频| 日韩精品在线视频| 日韩午夜伦伦午夜伦老司机| 久久人妻少妇嫩草AV无码专区| 午夜成午夜成年片在线观看| 欧美精品videossexo孕妇| 久久热av国产| 亚洲色大成网WWW学生| 国产精品久久久久久久久久久不卡| 日韩特黄特色大片免费看| 亚洲国产精品无码中文字小说| 色啊色| 夜夜嗨AV无码| 97香蕉久久夜色精品国产| 三级全黄app播放| 涩涩涩综合网久久综合| 国产人碰人摸人爱视频日日| http://www.comopolis.cn http://www.tuodou.com.cn http://www.trigem.com.cn